Yes - if it used only Standard Fortran77 or extensions which are now part of Fortran90.
But common extensions to Fortran77 which were not included in Fortran90 include:
Function name clashes - Fortran has no reserved words, but problems may arise one of your external function names matches that of an intrinsic function. There are 75 new ones, and names to avoid now include: ALL, ANY, COUNT, HUGE, KIND, MAXVAL, MERGE, MINVAL, PACK, RANGE, SCALE, SCAN, SIZE, SUM, TRIM, and UNPACK. This problem can be avoided by declaring your function to be EXTERNAL wherever necessary.
Static storage assumption - Fortran77 compilers generally used static storage for all variables, so SAVE statements could be omitted with impunity. Most Fortran90 systems use static storage only when required (variables given an initial value, or has an explicit SAVE attribute). Otherwise local variables in subprograms will not be preserved after control returns, and missing SAVE statements may cause problems.
Wide choice for PC/Windows and most Unix platforms, one or two for PC/Linux, VMS and Macintosh. They tend to be more expensive than for Fortran77, and not all are as efficient or stable.
The following are available free:
GNU's free compiler, g77, is suitable for legacy code and runs on many platforms, but supports only a few of the new features of Fortran90.
Fortran95 was formally adopted as the ISO Standard in November 1997. It adds only a few new features (e.g. a way of specifying initial values for data structures). The first Fortran95 compilers have already started to appear and many more are likely to appear by the end of 1998.
Fortran2000 is currently being defined: major new features are likely to include full support for object-oriented programming, and syntax for inter-operability with C.
Use of lower-case and long variable names already a common extention to Fortran77; free-format layout is a more radical change.
Examples here will use UPPER CASE for Fortran keywords and intrinsic functions, lower case for user-chosen names. This is not a recommended convention, just for clarity in these notes.
Lower-case letters may be used, but Fortran is case-insensitive (except within quoted character constants).
Symbolic names can be up to 31 characters long, and names may include underscores as well as digits:
temperature_in_fahrenheit = temperature_in_celsius * 1.8 + 32.0
Semi-colons separate two or more statements on the same line:
sumx = 0.0; sumy = 0.0; sumz = 0.0
End-of-line comments start with an exclamation mark (but must not be in column 6 of fixed-format code).
nday = mjd(year, month, day) ! convert to Modified Julian Date
Character constants may be enclosed either in a pair of apostrophes or double-quote marks - making it easier to embed the other character in a string:
WRITE(*,*) "If it ain't broke don't fix it"
Relational operators may be given in old or new forms:
Free-format layout rules:
CALL predict( mercury, venus, earth, & ! comment allowed here mars, jupiter, saturn, uranus, neptune, pluto)If the line-break splits a name or constant then a comment is not allowed, and the next line must start with another ampersand:
WRITE(*,*) "University of Leicester, Department of & &Physics & Astronomy" ! NO comment on preceding line
MILLION = 1 000 000 ! valid in fixed-layout lines only
With care one can write code valid in both formats, which may be useful for INCLUDE files to be used in both old and new code: the secret for continuation lines is to put an ampersand after column 72 and another in column 6 of the next line.
IMPLICIT NONE is now standard (and recommended so the compiler flags more mistakes).
The DOUBLE PRECISION data type is now just a special case of REAL so all facilities are identical; this means that double-precision complex is fully standardised.
INCLUDE statements are also standard (but the MODULE now provides better facilities).
Type statements - new form with double-colon allows all attributes of variables to be specified at once:
INTEGER, DIMENSION(800,640) :: screen, copy, buffer
Define constants without separate PARAMETER statement:
REAL, PARAMETER :: pi = 3.14159, rtod = 180.0/pi
Initialise variables too:
CHARACTER(LEN=50) :: infile = "default.dat" INTEGER :: file_number = 1, error_count = 0
DATA statement almost redundant - still useful to initialise just part of an array, use a repeat-count, or a hexadecimal constant:
INTEGER :: dozen(12), forty_two, sixty_three, max_byte DATA dozen / 6*0, 6*1 /, forty_two / B'101010' /, & sixty_three / O'77' /, max_byte / Z'FF'/
The SAVE attribute is applied automatically to any variable given an initial value, whether in a DATA or type statement.
INTENT may be specified for procedure arguments: useful aid to documentation, and allows the compiler to check usage more carefully:
SUBROUTINE readfile(iounit, array, status) IMPLICIT NONE ! not essential but good practice INTEGER, INTENT(IN) :: iounit ! unit number to read from REAL, INTENT(OUT) :: array ! data array returned INTEGER, INTENT(INOUT) :: status ! error-code (must be zero on entry)
SELECT CASE(day_number) CASE(1, 21, 31) suffix = 'st' CASE(2, 22) suffix = 'nd' CASE(3, 23) suffix = 'rd' CASE(4:20, 24:30) suffix = 'th' CASE DEFAULT suffix = '??' WRITE(*,*)'invalid date: ', day_number END SELECT WRITE(*, "(I4,A2)") day_number, suffix
The selection expression may be of integer or character type; the ranges in each CASE statement must not overlap. The default clause is optional.
The END DO statement is at last part of the Standard, so a label is no longer needed in each DO statement. In addition CYCLE will cause the next iteration to start at once, while EXIT exits the loop structure prematurely.
This example scans the headers of a FITS file:
CHARACTER(LEN=80) :: header DO line = 1,36 READ(unit, "(a80)") header IF( header(1:8) == "COMMENT") THEN ! ignore comments - loop again CYCLE ELSE IF( header(1:8) == "END") THEN ! need READ no more lines EXIT ! so exit from the loop ELSE ! process this header... END DO
An indefinite DO also exists - here an EXIT from the loop is essential:
sum = 0.0 DO READ(*, IOSTAT=status) value IF(status /= 0) EXIT sum = sum + value ! or whatever END DO
DO WHILE is supported, but an indefinite DO with an EXIT does much the same:
DO WHILE( ABS(x - xmin) > 1.0e-5) CALL iterate(x, xmin) END DO
Names may be given to DO-loops, IF-blocks, or CASE-structures - helps readability when they are deeply nested, and required to EXIT from (or CYCLE around) anything other than the innermost loop.
sum = 0.0 outer: DO j = 1,ny ! sum values until zero encountered inner: DO i = 1,nx IF(array(i,j) == 0.0) EXIT outer sum = sum + array(i,j) END DO inner END DO outerNote that structure names like inner do not have the drawbacks of statement labels because it is not possible to jump to them using a GO TO statement.
Statement labels should be avoided because each one marks the site of a jump from elsewhere, and thus makes it harder to see the execution sequence. Label-free programming is now feasible in many cases:
WRITE(unit, "(A,F10.3,A)") "flux =", source_flux, " Jansky"
Generalisation of statement functions - no longer limited to one line:
SUBROUTINE polygon_area(vertices) ! an external procedure IMPLICIT NONE ! applies throughout !... area1 = triangle_area(a, b, x) !... area2 = triangle_area(x, c, d) !... CONTAINS ! internal procedures follow... REAL FUNCTION triangle_area(a, b, c) ! internal procedure REAL, INTENT(IN) :: a, b, c REAL :: s ! local variable in the function s = 0.5 * (a + b + c) triangle_area = sqrt(s * (s-a) * (s-b) * (s-c)) END FUNCTION triangle_area END SUBROUTINE polygon_area
Rules for internal procedures:
Host association has its risks: e.g. using a variable x in the internal procedure (above) without declaring it would inadvertently use the host's x.
May use scoping rules to set up set of procedures with a few global variables, e.g.
SUBROUTINE main(args) REAL :: args !accessible to internal procedures REAL :: global_variables ! likewise CALL internal CONTAINS SUBROUTINE internal !... END SUBROUTINE internal SUBROUTINE lower_level !... END SUBROUTINE lower_level END SUBROUTINE main
New form of type statement with double colon can declare arrays and simple scalars:
REAL :: array(3,4,5), scalar, vector(12345)Dimension attribute useful if several arrays have the same shape:
INTEGER, DIMENSION(1024,768) :: screen, window, new_window
An Array constant is a list of elements enclosed in (/ and /) and may be used to give an initial value to a variable or to define an array constant.
INTEGER :: options(3) = (/ 5, 10, 20 /) ! initial values CHARACTER(LEN=3), PARAMETER :: day(0:6) = & (/'Sun','Mon','Tue','Wed','Thu','Fri','Sat'/) ! array constant
Array terminology: An array declared like this:
REAL :: X(2,5,-1:8)has a rank of 3, extents of 2, 5, and 10, a shape of (/ 2, 5, 10 /), and a size of 100.
Arrays are now first-class objects, and array-valued expressions are evaluated element-wise, which saves writing many simple loops:
REAL, DIMENSION(512,1024) :: raw, background, exposure, result, std_err !... result = (raw - background) / exposureSimilarly all appropriate intrinsic functions operate element-wise if given an array as their argument:
std_err = SQRT(raw) / exposureArray expressions may also include scalar constants and variables: these are effectively replicated (or expanded) to the required number of elements:
std_err = 0.0 ! every element set to zero background = 0.1 * exposure + 0.125All the elements in an array-valued expression must be conformable, that is they are either either scalars or arrays all of which have the same shape, i.e. the same number of elements along each axis (the actual lower and upper-bounds may be different).
An array constructor, which is generalisation of the array constant, may appear in any array expression, and and may contain a list of scalars, arrays, or loops:
array = (/ 1.51, x, 2.58, y, 3.53 /) ramp = (/ (REAL(i), i = 1,10) /)
The array constructor only works for 1-dimensional arrays. For arrays of higher rank the RESHAPE function is useful: its second argument specifies the shape of the output array:
INTEGER :: list(2,3) = RESHAPE( (/ 11, 12, 21, 22, 31, 32 /), (/2,3/))
An array section or slice is specified with a colon separating the lower and upper bounds. Thus ramp(7:9) is a 3-element slice of array ramp. Similarly raw(2:101,301:500) is a slice of the array called raw of shape 100 × 200 elements. Note that a slice does not have to occupy contiguous storage locations - Fortran takes care of this. It also allows assignments statements involving overlapping slices:
a(2:10) = a(1:9) ! shift up one element b(1:9) = b(3:11) ! shift down two elementsIn such cases the compiler must generate code to work through the elements in the right order (or copy to some temporary space) to avoid overwriting.
Array triplet notation allows sparse sub-arrays to be selected; the stride (third item in the triplet) must not of course be zero:
b(1:10:2) ! selects five elements: 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 b(90:80:-3) ! selects four elements 90, 87, 84, 81 in that order
Zero-sized arrays may be referenced, just as if a DO-loop had been used which specified no iterations. Thus b(k:n) has no elements if k is greater than n.
Vector subscripts may also be used:
INTEGER :: mysub(4) REAL :: vector(100) mysub = (/ 32, 16, 17, 18 /) WRITE(*,*) vector(mysub)This outputs only elements 32, 16, 17, and 18 of the vector in that order.
Note that vector subscripts may only be used on the left-hand side of an assignment if there are no repeated values in the list of subscripts (otherwise one element would have to be set to two different values).
Array reduction functions
|l = ALL(mask, dim)||.true. if all elements are true|
|l = ANY(mask, dim)||.true. if any elements are true|
|i = COUNT(mask, dim)||Number of true elements|
|x = SUM(array, dim, mask)||Sum of elements|
|x = PRODUCT(array, dim, mask)||Product of elements|
|x = MAXVAL(array, dim, mask)||Maximum value in array|
|x = MINVAL(array, dim, mask)||Minimum value in array|
|x = DOT_PRODUCT(va, vb)||Dot product of two vectors|
Example: if REAL :: myarray(2,3) contains
SUM(myarray) returns 21
SUM(myarray, DIM=1) returns (/ 9, 12 /) SUM(myarray, DIM=2) returns (/ 3, 7, 11/)
Other array manipulation functions
|a = MATMUL(mata, matb)||Matrix multiplication (or matrix X vector)|
|a = TRANSPOSE(matrix)||Transpose of 2-d array|
|a = CSHIFT(array, shift, dim)||Circular shift of elements|
|a = EOSHIFT(array, shift, dim)||End-off shift of elements|
|a = PACK(array, mask, pad)||Pack values of array which pass the mask|
|a = MERGE(tsource, fsource, mask)||Use tsource if mask is true, else fsource elements.|
|a = MAXLOC(array, mask)||Location of maximum element|
|a = MINLOC(array, mask)||Location of minimum element|
An example of their use is to find the mean and variance of an array but with values of zero to be ignored:
mean = SUM(x /= 0.0) / COUNT(x /= 0.0) variance = SUM((x-mean)**2, MASK= x /= 0.0) / COUNT(x /= 0.0)
WHERE(x /= 0.0) inverse = 1.0 / x ELSEWHERE inverse = 0.0 END WHEREThere is also a single statement form of it:
WHERE(array > 100.0) array = 0.0
There are three forms of dynamic array: automatic, allocatable, and pointer array.
SUBROUTINE smooth(npts, spectrum) IMPLICIT NONE INTEGER, INTENT(IN) :: npts REAL, INTENT(INOUT) :: spectrum REAL :: space(npts), bigger(2*npts) ! automatic arraysThe dimension bounds may be integer expressions involving any variables accessible at that point: normally this means other arguments of the routine. Within the procedure an automatic array is just like any other; it may be passed to lower-level routines, but it becomes undefined as soon as control returns to above the level at which it is defined. An automatic array cannot be defined initially or be used to save values from one call to another.
Most systems store automatic arrays on the stack; some Unix systems do not allocate much stack space by default. The following command may be used to increase it:
> limit stack unlimited
REAL, ALLOCATABLE :: vector(:), matrix(:,:), three_d(:,:,:)The actual dimension bounds may then be set anywhere in the executable code (the lower bound is 1 by default):
ALLOCATE(vector(12345), matrix(0:511,0:255))Allocatable arrays may be passed to lower-level routines in the usual way. But they need to be explicitly deallocated before the procedure which declares them exits, otherwise a memory leak may occur.
DEALLOCATE(matrix, vector)Once a its size has been allocated, it cannot be altered, except by deallocating the array and then allocating it again. If you want to preserve the contents they need to be copied somewhere else temporarily.
Most systems use heap storage for allocatable arrays. With very large arrays one might use up all the space available, so a status variable can be used to check. It normally returns zero, but is set non-zero if the allocation fails:
ALLOCATE(huge_array(1:npts), STAT=ierror) IF(ierror /= 0) THEN WRITE(*,*)"Error trying to allocate huge_array" STOP END IFIn such cases there may be another less memory-intensive algorithm available, otherwise the program should exit gracefully.
It is important to ensure that you do not attempt to allocate the same array twice; the ALLOCATED intrinsic function helps here:
IF(ALLOCATED(myarray)) THEN DEALLOCATE(myarray) END IF ALLOCATE(myarray(1:newsize))
An allocatable array can also be declared to have the SAVE attribute, in which case it will survive after the exit of the procedure which creates it. This is especially useful in connection with modules (as explained later).
An allocatable array cannot be passed to a procedure when in an un-allocated state. But this can be done with a pointer array:
PROGRAM pdemo IMPLICIT NONE REAL, POINTER :: parray(:) OPEN(UNIT=9, FILE='mydata', STATUS='old') CALL readin(9, parray) WRITE(*,*)'array of ', SIZE(array), ' points:' WRITE(*,*) parray DEALLOCATE(parray) STOP ! STOP is optional CONTAINS SUBROUTINE readin(iounit, z) INTEGER, INTENT(IN) :: iounit REAL, POINTER :: z(:) ! cannot use INTENT for pointer INTEGER :: npoints READ(iounit) npoints ! find how many points to read ALLOCATE(z(1:npoints)) ! allocate the space READ(iounit) z ! read the entire array END SUBROUTINE readin END PROGRAM pdemo
This example is especially simple because an internal procedure is used, so that the compiler knows all the details of the interface when it compiles the subroutine call: a so-called explicit interface, which is required when passing a pointer to a procedure.
The there are now four types of program unit in Fortran:
The module may contain any combination of:
The module may be accessed with a USE statement in any other program unit (including another module).
MODULE trig_consts IMPLICIT NONE DOUBLE PRECISION, PARAMETER :: pi = 3.141592653589d0, & rtod = 180.0d0/pi, dtor = pi/180.0d0 END MODULE trig_consts PROGRAM calculate USE trig_consts IMPLICIT NONE WRITE(*,*) SIN(30.0*dtor) END PROGRAM calculate
These simple uses of the module barely distinguish it from an INCLUDE file (now part of the Fortran Standard), but the module is actually a much more powerful facility, because of module procedures.
The general structure of a module:
Module procedures have direct access to all the definitions and data storage in the data section via host association.
Allows encapsulation of data and a set of procedures which operate on the data or use the storage area for inter-communication.
This (slightly shortened) module handles output to a VT terminal or X-term window:
MODULE vt_mod IMPLICIT NONE ! applies to whole module CHARACTER(1), PARAMETER :: escape = achar(27) INTEGER, SAVE :: screen_width = 80, screen_height = 24 CONTAINS SUBROUTINE clear ! Clears screen, moves cursor to top left CALL vt_write(escape // "[H" // escape // "[2J") END SUBROUTINE clear SUBROUTINE set_width(width) ! sets new screen width INTEGER, INTENT(IN) :: width ! preferred width (80/132) IF(WIDTH > 80) THEN ! switch to 132-column mode CALL vt_write( escape // "[?3h" ) screen_width = 132 ELSE ! switch to 80-column mode CALL vt_write( escape // "[?3l" ) screen_width = 80 END IF END SUBROUTINE set_width SUBROUTINE get_width(width) ! returns screen width (80/132) INTEGER, INTENT(OUT) :: width width = screen_width END SUBROUTINE get_width SUBROUTINE vt_write(string) ! for internal use only INTEGER, INTENT(IN) :: string WRITE(*, "(1X,A)", ADVANCE="NO") string END SUBROUTINE vt_write END MODULE vt_modTo use this module one just needs at the top:
By default all module variables are available by all program units which USE the module. This may not always be desirable: if the module procedures provide all the access functions necessary, it is safer if package users cannot interfere with its internal workings. By default all names in a module are PUBLIC but this can be changed using the the PRIVATE statement:
MODULE vt_mod IMPLICIT NONE PRIVATE ! change default so all items private PUBLIC :: clear_screen, set_width, get_width
Now a program unit which uses the module will not be able to access the subroutine vt_write nor variables such as screen_width.
Even with the precautions suggested above, sometimes a module will contain a procedure (or variable) name which clashes with one that the user has already chosen. There are two easy solutions. If the name is one that is not actually used but merely made available by the module, then the USE ONLY facility is sufficient:
USE vt_mod, ONLY: clear_screenBut supposing that one needs access to two procedures both called get_width, the one accessed in the vt_mod module can be renamed:
USE vt_mod, gwidth => get_widthso it acquires the temporary alias of gwidth.
But there are a few potential drawbacks:
Here is an example of an interface block:
INTERFACE DOUBLE PRECISION FUNCTION sla_dat (utc) IMPLICIT NONE DOUBLE PRECISION :: utc END FUNCTION sla_dat SUBROUTINE sla_cr2tf (ndp, angle, sign, ihmsf) IMPLICIT NONE INTEGER :: ndp REAL :: angle CHARACTER (LEN=*) :: sign INTEGER, DIMENSION (4) :: ihmsf END SUBROUTINE sla_cr2tf END INTERFACENote that an IMPLICIT NONE is needed in each procedure definition, since an interface block inherits nothing from the enclosing module.
An interface block may, of course, be put in a module to facilitate use. When using an existing (Fortran77) library, it may be worth-while to create a module containing all the procedure interfaces - may be done automatically using Metcalf's convert program.
The assumed-shape array is strongly recommended for all arrays passed to procedures: the rank has to be specified, but the bounds are just marked with colons. This means the actual shape is taken each time it is called from that of the corresponding actual argument.
MODULE demo IMPLICIT NONE CONTAINS SUBROUTINE showsize(array) IMPLICIT NONE REAL, INTENT(IN) :: array(:,:) ! 2-dimensional. WRITE(*,*) "array size", SIZE(array,1), " X ", SIZE(array,2) END SUBROUTINE showsize END MODULE demo PROGRAM asize USE demo IMPLICIT NONE REAL :: first(3,5), second(123,456) CALL showsize(first) CALL showsize(second) END PROGRAM asizeThe lower bound is one by default, it does not have to be the same as that of the actual argument, as only the shape (extent along each axis) is passed over, so that intrinsic functions such as LBOUND and UBOUND provide no additional information.
Any procedure which has an explicit interface, may be called using keyword notation in the call, as an alternative to the positional notation. All intrinsic functions may also be called by keyword, which is handy when one wants to omit optional arguments:
INTEGER :: intarray(8) CALL DATE_AND_TIME(VALUES=intarray)
After any argument uses keyword notation, all subsequent ones in same call must do so.
Arguments of user-written procedures may also be made optional, these should be tested to see whether they are PRESENT before use:
SUBROUTINE write_text(string, nskip) CHARACTER(*), INTENT(IN) :: string ! line of text INTEGER, INTENT(IN), OPTIONAL :: nskip ! no of lines to skip ! local storage INTEGER :: localskip IF(PRESENT(nskip)) then localskip = nskip ELSE localskip = 0 ! default value END IF ! rest of code to skip lines etc.
Optional arguments at the end of the list may simply be omitted in the procedure call, but if you omit earlier ones you cannot simply use two adjacent commas (as in some extensions to Fortran77). After an optional argument has been omitted, all subsequent arguments must use the keyword notation.
Intrinsic functions often have generic names, thus ABS does something different depending on whether its argument is real, integer, or complex. User-written functions may now be given a generic name in a similar way.
Suppose you have a module containing several similar data sorting routines, for example sort_int to sort an array of integers, sort_real to sort reals, etc. A generic name such as sort may be declared in the head of the module like this:
INTERFACE sort MODULE PROCEDURE sort_int, sort_real, sort_string END INTERFACE
The rules for resolving generic names are complicated but it is sufficient to ensure that each procedure differs from all others with the same generic name in the data type, or rank of at least one non-optional argument.
RECURSIVE FUNCTION factorial(n) RESULT(nfact) IMPLICIT NONE INTEGER, INTENT(IN) :: n INTEGER :: nfact IF(n > 0) THEN nfact = n * factorial(n-1) ELSE nfact = 1 END IF END FUNCTION factorial
But it is easy to see how to do this just as easily using a DO-loop.
The use of a RESULT variable is optional here, but required when the syntax would otherwise be ambiguous, e.g. when the function returns an array so an array element reference cannot be distinguished from a function call.
The terms user-defined type, and data structure and derived type all mean the same thing. A simple example is shown here, designed to keep handle a list of celestial objects in an observing proposal. The first step is to define the structure:
TYPE :: target_type CHARACTER(15) :: name ! name of object REAL :: ra, dec ! celestial coordinates, degrees INTEGER :: time ! exposure time requested, secs END TYPE target_typeNote that one can mix character and non-character items freely (unlike in common blocks). The compiler arranges the physical layout for efficient access.
This only specifies the structure: to create actual variables with this user-defined data type the TYPE statement is used in a different form:
TYPE(target_type) :: old_target, new_list(30)This has created a structured variable, and an array of 30 elements, each of which has the four specified components.
Components of a structure are accessed using per-cent signs (unfortunately not dots as in many other languages, because of syntax ambiguities).
Thus old_target%name is a character variable, while new_list(13)%ra is a real variable. Such structure components can be used exactly like simple variables of the same data type:
new_list(1)%name = "Cen X-3" new_list(1)%ra = 169.758 new_list(1)%dec = -60.349 new_list(1)%time = 15000 ! ..... new_list(2) = old_target ! copy all components new_list(2)%time = 2 * new_list(2)%timeA space is optional either side of the per-cent sign. Note also that component names are local to the structure, so that there is no problem if the same program unit also uses simple variables with names like name, ra, dec etc.
These allow all the components of a structure to be set at once, the type-name is used as if it were a conversion function, with a list of the component values as arguments:
new_list(3) = target_type("AM Her", 273.744, 49.849, 25000)
If you have an array of some structured type, each component may be treated as if it were an array: thus new_list%dec is an array of 30 real values. The elements may not be in adjacent locations in memory, but the compiler takes care of this:
total_time = SUM(new_list%time)
Besides their use in assignment statements, structured variables can be used in input/output statements. With unformatted or list-directed I/O this is straight-forward, but with formatted I/O one has to provide an appropriate list of format descriptors:
WRITE(*,*) old_target ! list-directed format easy READ(file, "(A,2F8.3,I6)") new_list(4)
Two or more structure definitions may be nested:
TYPE :: point REAL :: x, y ! coordinates END TYPE point TYPE :: line TYPE(point) :: end(2) ! coordinates of ends INTEGER :: width ! line-width in pixels END TYPE line TYPE(line) :: v REAL :: length v = line( (/ point(1.2,2.4), point(3.5,7.9) /), 2) length = SQRT((v%end(1)%x - v%end(2)%x)**2 & + (v%end(1)%y - v%end(1)%y)**2)
One limitation of Fortran structures is that array components must have their length fixed in advance: an an allocatable array cannot be a component of a structure. Fortunately pointer components are permitted:
TYPE :: document_type CHARACTER(80), POINTER :: line(:) END TYPE document_type ! TYPE(document_type) :: mydoc ! declare a structured variable ALLOCATE(mydoc%line(1200)) ! space for 1200-lines of textTo make the structure even more flexible one might allocate an array of CHARACTER(LEN=1) variables to hold each line of text, although this would not be as easy to use.
In order to pass a structured variable to a procedure it is necessary for the same structure definition to be provided on both sides of the interface. The easiest way to do this is to use a module.
There are, however, two limitations on the use of derived type variables containing pointer components:
When a new data type is defined, it would often be nice if objects of
that type could be used in expressions, because it is much easier to
a * b + c * d than
Each operator you want to use has to be defined, or overloaded, for each derived data type.
This example defines a new data type, fuzzy, which contains a real value and its standard-error. When two fuzzy values are added the errors add quadratically. Here we define or overload the ``+'' operator:
MODULE fuzzy_maths IMPLICIT NONE TYPE fuzzy REAL :: value, error END TYPE fuzzy INTERFACE OPERATOR (+) MODULE PROCEDURE fuzzy_plus_fuzzy END INTERFACE CONTAINS FUNCTION fuzzy_plus_fuzzy(first, second) RESULT (sum) TYPE(fuzzy), INTENT(IN) :: first, second ! INTENT(IN) required TYPE(fuzzy) :: sum sum%value = first%value + second%value sum%error = SQRT(first%error**2 + second%error**2) END FUNCTION fuzzy_plus_fuzzy END MODULE fuzzy_maths PROGRAM test_fuzzy IMPLICIT NONE USE fuzzy_maths TYPE(fuzzy) a, b, c a = fuzzy(15.0, 4.0) ; b = fuzzy(12.5, 3.0) c = a + b PRINT *, c END PROGRAM test_fuzzyThe result is, as you would expect: 27.5 5.0
In a similar way, the assignment operator, = can also be overloaded for derived data types, but in this case one uses a subroutine with one argument INTENT(IN) and the other INTENT(OUT).
Further definitions might cover:
When a new data type has been defined in this way:
Overloading an existing operator is sensible only if the meaning is unchanged. Otherwise it is best to invent a new one. For example, .like. to compare to character-strings, or .union. for a set-operator.
The precedence of an existing operator is unchanged by overloading; new unary operators have a higher precedence, and new binary operators have a lower precedence than all intrinsic operators.
The INQUIRE statement has additional keywords to return information on these aspects of an open unit.
The record-length units of an unformatted (binary) direct-access are system-dependent: there is now a portable solution using a new form of the INQUIRE statement. You supply a specimen I/O list and it returns the length to use in the OPEN statement.
INQUIRE(IOLENGTH=length) specimen, list, of, items OPEN(UNIT=unit, FILE=fname, STATUS="new", ACCESS="direct", RECL=length)
CHARACTER(LEN=10) :: string string = " 3.14 " READ(string, *) somereal
REAL :: x = 0.125 WRITE(*, "(E12.3, ES12.3, EN12.3)") x, x, xproduces:
0.125E+00 1.250E-01 125.000E-03ESw.d produces scientific format with the decimal after the first digit, while ENw.d produces engineering format with an exponent which is always a multiple of 3. For input they are all exactly equivalent.
Integers can be read/written using hexadecimal, octal, or binary conversions:
INTEGER :: n = 125 WRITE(*, "(I10, Z10, O10, B10)") n, n, n, nProduces:
125 7D 175 1111101All these may specify a minimum number of digits to be output: e.g. Z10.6
The generic descriptor Gw.d may be used for all data types, including logical and character.
This is a new facility, not quite stream-I/O, but nearly. Normal (advancing) READ and WRITE statements always process at least one whole record. Non-advancing ones only move a notional pointer as far as needed. A non-advancing write allows user input on the same line as a screen-prompt:
WRITE(*, "(A)", ADVANCE="no") "Enter the number of iterations: " READ(*, *) nloopsA non-advancing read can measure the actual length of an input line using the new SIZE keyword.
CHARACTER(LEN=80) :: text INTEGER :: nchars, code READ(unit, "(A)", ADVANCE="no", SIZE=nchars, IOSTAT=code) textIf the line entered is too short then the IOSTAT return-code will be negative (and different from the value signalling end-of-file).
Much simpler, especially because of the many new or improved intrinsic functions:
|c = ACHAR(I)||Char in Ith position in ASCII table|
|i = IACHAR(C)||Position of Char in ASCII table|
|i = LEN_TRIM(STRING)||Length ignoring trailing spaces|
|s = TRIM(STRING)||String with trailing spaces removed|
|s = ADJUSTL(STRING)||Adjust left by removing leading spaces|
|s = ADJUSTR(STRING)||Adjust right by removing trailing spaces|
|s = REPEAT(STRING, NCOPIES)||Repeated concatenation|
|i = INDEX(STRING, SUBSTRING, back)||reverse search if back .true.|
|i = SCAN(STRING, SET, back)||Scan for 1st of any of set of chars|
|i = VERIFY(STRING, SET, back)||Scan for 1st char not in set|
Overlapping substrings in assignments are permitted:
text(1:5) = test(3:7) ! now ok, invalid in Fortran77
The concatenation operator // may be used without restriction on procedure arguments of passed-length.
Character functions may return a string with a length which depends on the function arguments, e.g.
FUNCTION concat(s1, s2) IMPLICIT NONE CHARACTER(LEN=LEN_TRIM(s1)+LEN_TRIM(s2)) :: concat ! function name CHARACTER(LEN=*), INTENT(IN) :: s1, s2 concat = TRIM(s1) // TRIM(s2) END FUNCTION concat
Zero-length strings are permitted, e.g. a sub-string reference like string(k:n) where k > n, or a constant like "".
Sub-strings of constants are permitted, e.g. to convert an integer, k, in the range 0 to 9 into the corresponding character:
achar = "0123456789"(k:k) ! note: error if k < 0 or k > 9.
Many programming languages support pointers, as they make it easier to implement dynamic data structures such as linked lists, stacks, and trees. Programs in C are heavily dependent on pointers because an array passed to a function instantly turns into a pointer. But:
Unfortunately a pointer starts life in limbo, neither associated nor disassociated (fixed in Fortran95). The best practice is to nullify each pointer at the start of execution, like this:
NULLIFY(parray)and then a test of ASSOCIATED(parray) would be valid, and would return .false. until it had been pointed at some actual storage.
When a pointer array is passed as an argument to a procedure which also declares it to be a pointer, the lower-bounds of the argument are passed across as well as the upper-bounds. In all other cases, the lower bounds need to be specifically declared in the procedure, and default to one unless otherwise specified.
TYPE :: ptr_to_array REAL, DIMENSION(:), POINTER :: arr END TYPE ptr_to_array TYPE(ptr_to_array), ALLOCATABLE :: x(:) !... ALLOCATE(x(nx)) DO i = 1,nx ALLOCATE(x(i)%arr(m)) END DO
REAL, TARGET :: image(1000,1000) REAL, DIMENSION(:,:), POINTER :: alpha, beta alpha => image(1:500, 501:1000) beta => image(1:1000:2, 1000:1,-2) ! axis flippedNote that pointer assignment uses the symbol => to distinguish the operation from actual assigment of a value.
A case in which it is useful for a function to return a pointer to an array is illustrated by the reallocate function below.
MODULE realloc_mod CONTAINS FUNCTION reallocate(p, n) ! reallocate REAL REAL, POINTER, DIMENSION(:) :: p, reallocate INTEGER, intent(in) :: n INTEGER :: nold, ierr ALLOCATE(reallocate(1:n), STAT=ierr) IF(ierr /= 0) STOP "allocate error" IF(.NOT. ASSOCIATED(p)) RETURN nold = MIN(SIZE(p), n) reallocate(1:nold) = p(1:nold) DEALLOCATE(p) END FUNCTION REALLOCATE END MODULE realloc_mod PROGRAM realloc_test USE realloc_mod IMPLICIT NONE REAL, POINTER, DIMENSION(:) :: p INTEGER :: j, nels = 2 ALLOCATE(p(1:nels)) p(1) = 12345 p => reallocate(p, 10000) ! note pointer assignment WRITE(*,*) "allocated ", nels, size(p), " elements" WRITE(*,*) "p(1)=", p(1) END PROGRAM realloc_test
Note that pointer assignment uses the symbol => since it needs to be distinguished from simple assignment of a value.
Pointers can be used to construct complex dynamic data structures of all types, such as singly and doubly-linked-lists, binary-trees, etc. This is possible because a variable of derived type may contain a pointer which points to itself or to another object of the same type.
Pointers may only point to objects which have been declared with the TARGET attribute, to other pointers, or to arrays allocated to a pointer.
It was a common extension to Fortran77 to allow declarations of the form LOGICAL*1, INTEGER*2, or REAL*8. But this simple scheme was not adopted for Fortran90.
Instead Fortran90 defines 5 distinct intrinsic data types (character, logical, integer, real, complex) but allows for different kinds of them to exist. Two kinds of real and complex are required (the second kind of real has the alias of DOUBLE PRECISION. Systems may support additional kinds of any of the 5 intrinsic data types.
The kind is specified with an integer, e.g. INTEGER(2) instead of INTEGER*2 but the Standard does not define what the integer means. To make software portable, two intrinsic functions are provided: SELECTED_INT_KIND selects an integer kind value for the minimum number of decimal digits you want, and SELECTED_REAL_KIND does the same for reals given the minimum significant decimal digits and exponent range. Thus:
INTEGER, PARAMETER :: & short = SELECTED_INT_KIND(4), & ! >= 4-digit integers long = SELECTED_INT_KIND(9), & ! >= 9-digit integers dble = SELECTED_REAL_KIND(15, 200) ! 15-digit reals to 10**200 INTEGER(short) :: myimage(1024,1024) INTEGER(long) :: counter REAL(double) :: processed_data(2000,2000)
It may be that on some systems the same kind of integer would be used for those declared short and long, but this should not affect portability.
The best practice is to include definitions of kind parameters (like those above) in a module which is used throughtout the program.
Constants may have their kind parameter appended, where kind matching is required (e.g. in procedure arguments):
CALL somesub( 3.14159265358_dble, 12345_long, 42_short)
Another intrinsic function, KIND returns the kind parameter of any variable.
WRITE(*,*) " Double precision kind is ', KIND(0d0)
In principle the kind system may be extended to characters - Fortran systems are free to support 16-bit character-sets such as Unicode.
All the MIL-STD intrinsics for bit-manipulation are now standardized. Bit are numbered from 0 on the right, i.e. the least-significant end.
|i = BTEST(i, ipos)||Bit testing|
|i = IAND(i, j)||Logical AND|
|i = IBCLR(i, ipos)||Clear bit|
|i = IBITS(i, ipos, len)||Bit extraction|
|i = IBSET(i, ipos)||Set bit|
|i = IEOR(i, j)||Exclusive OR|
|i = IOR(i, j)||Inclusive OR|
|i = ISHFT(i, j)||Logical shift left (right if j -ve)|
|i = ISHFTC(i, j)||Circular shift left (right if j -ve)|
|i = NOT(i)||Logical complement|
|i = BIT_SIZE(i)||Number of bits in variables of type i|
CALL MVBITS(from, frompos, len, to, topos) is an intrinsic subroutine which copies bits from one integer to another.
Binary, octal, and hex values may be read and written using new format descriptors Bw.d, Ow.d, Zw.d, and that DATA statements may contain binary, octal, and hex constants.
FLOOR and MODULO work like AINT and MOD but do sensible things on negative numbers, and CEILING which rounds up to the next whole number.
TRANSFER may be used to copy the bits from one data type to another - a type-safe alternative to tricks formerly played with EQUIVALENCE statements.
LOGICAL, PARAMETER :: bigend = IACHAR(TRANSFER(1,"a")) == 0This sets bigend to .TRUE. on a big-endian hardware platform, and .FALSE. otherwise.
Numerical enquiry functions include BIT_SIZE, DIGITS EPSILON, MAXEXPONENT, MINEXPONENT, PRECISION, RADIX, and RANGE. Perhaps the most useful of these are TINY which returns the smallest non-zero real (of whatever kind), and HUGE which returns the largest representable number (integer or real).
System access intrinsics include:
DATE_AND_TIME, an intrinsic subroutine, which returns the current date and time as a string or an array of integers,
RANDOM_NUMBER which returns a whole array of pseudo-random numbers,
RANDOM_SEED which can randomise the seed.
SYSTEM_CLOCK useful in timing tests.
In Fortran95 a true CPU_TIME routine is introduced.
Best WWW resources:
The Fortran market: http://www.fortran.com/fortran
FAQ at http://www.ifremer.fr/ditigo/molagnon/fortran90/engfaq.html
These have links to tools such as style-converters and interface block generators, free software, and commercial products.
The Usenet news group comp.lang.fortran now has almost as many postings on Fortran90 as on Fortran77.
The mailing list comp-fortran-90 has on-line archives at http://www.jiscmail.ac.uk which also contains joining instructions.
The best book on Fortran90 for existing Fortran users is, in my opinion, Upgrading to Fortran 90 by Cooper Redwine, published by Springer, 1995, ISBN 0-387-97995-6.
An alternative is Fortran90/95 Explained by Michael Metcalf & John Reid, published by Oxford University Press, ISBN 0 19 851888 9. This is comprehensive, but in my opinion, sometimes a bit too concise.
See also Numerical Recipes in Fortran90 by Press et. al. published by CUP, ISBN 0-521-57439-0.
The major features include
A good on-line coverage of these new features is given in http://www.nsc.liu.se/ boein/f77to90/f95.html
The name is not yet decided, may be Fortran 2002!